Discussion of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Mentor Graphics management evaluates and makes operating decisions using various performance measures. In addition to our GAAP results, we also consider adjusted gross margin, operating margin and net income (loss), which we refer to as non-GAAP gross margin, operating margin, and net income (loss), respectively. These non-GAAP measures are derived from the revenues of our product, maintenance, and services business operations and the costs directly related to the generation of those revenues, such as cost of revenue, research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses, that management considers in evaluating our ongoing core operating performance. These non-GAAP measures exclude amortization of purchased and other identified intangible assets, in-process research and development, special charges, equity plan-related compensation expenses and charges, and gains which management does not consider reflective of our core operating business.
Purchased and other identified intangible assets consist primarily of purchased technology, backlog, trade names, customer relationships, and employment agreements. In-process research and development charges represent products in development that had not reached technological feasibility at the time of acquisition. Special charges consist of post-acquisition rebalance costs including severance and benefits, excess facilities, and asset-related charges, and also include strategic reallocations or reductions of personnel resources. Equity plan-related compensation expenses represent the fair value of all share-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, as required under Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123 (revised 2004), “Share-Based Payment” (SFAS 123R). For purposes of comparability across other periods and against other companies in our industry, non-GAAP net income (loss) is adjusted by the amount of additional taxes or tax benefit that we would accrue using a normalized effective tax rate applied to the non-GAAP results.
In certain instances, our GAAP results of operations may not be profitable when our corresponding non-GAAP results are profitable or vice versa. The number of shares on which our non-GAAP EPS is calculated may therefore differ from the GAAP presentation due to the anti-dilutive effect of stock options in a loss situation.
Non-GAAP gross margin, operating margin and net income (loss) are supplemental measures of our performance that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, GAAP. Moreover, they should not be considered as an alternative to any performance measure derived in accordance with GAAP, or as an alternative to cash flow from operating activities as a measure of our liquidity. We present non-GAAP gross margin, operating margin and net income (loss) because we consider them to be important supplemental measures of our operating performance and profitability trends, and because we believe they give investors useful information on period-to-period performance as evaluated by management.
Management excludes from our non-GAAP measures certain recurring items to facilitate its review of the comparability of our core operating performance on a period-to-period basis because such items are not related to our ongoing core operating performance as viewed by management. Management considers our core operating performance to be that which can be affected by our managers in any particular period through their management of the resources that affect our underlying revenue and profit generating operations during that period. Management uses this view of our operating performance for purposes of comparison with our business plan and individual operating budgets and allocation of resources.
Additionally, when evaluating potential acquisitions, management excludes the items described above from its consideration of target performance and valuation. More specifically management adjusts for the excluded items for the following reasons: