To supplement our condensed consolidated financial statements presented on a GAAP basis, Model N uses non-GAAP measures of adjusted EBITDA, net (loss) income, weighted average shares outstanding and net (loss) income per share, which are adjusted to exclude LeapFrogRx compensation charges, stock-based compensation expense, restructuring charge, amortization of intangible assets and changes in fair value of preferred stock warrant liability and includes dilutive shares where applicable. We believe these adjustments are appropriate to enhance an overall understanding of our past financial performance and also our prospects for the future. These adjustments to our current period GAAP results are made with the intent of providing both management and investors a more complete understanding of Model N’s underlying operating results and trends and our marketplace performance. The non-GAAP results are an indication of our baseline performance that are considered by management for the purpose of making operational decisions. In addition, these non-GAAP results are the primary indicators management uses as a basis for our planning and forecasting of future periods. The presentation of this additional information is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for operating (loss) income, net (loss) income or basic and diluted net (loss) loss per share prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. Non-GAAP financial measures are not based on a comprehensive set of accounting rules or principles and are subject to limitations.
While a large component of our expense in certain periods, we believe investors may want to exclude the effects of these items in order to compare our financial performance with that of other companies and between time periods:
(a) Stock-based compensation is a non-cash expense accounted for in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. Stock-based compensation expenses are excluded from our non-GAAP income because stock-based compensation amounts are difficult to forecast due in part to the volume and timing of stock option and restricted stock grants and the volatility of our common stock. We believe that the exclusion of stock-based compensation expense provides for a better comparison of our operation results to prior periods and to our peer companies.
(b) Amortization of intangible assets resulted principally from acquisitions. Intangible asset amortization is a non-cash item. As such, we believe exclusion of these expenses provides for a better comparison of our operation results to prior periods and to our peer companies.
(c) In January 2012, we acquired LeapFrog Rx for initial cash consideration of $3.0 million as well as potential additional payments to former LeapFrogRx shareholders totalling up to $8.3 million which are expected to be incurred through January 2015. These additional payments are, among other things, subject to future continued employment and are therefore considered compensatory in nature and are being recognized as compensation expense (LeapFrogRx compensation charges) over the term of each component. We believe that the exclusion of these expenses provides for a better comparison of our operation results to prior periods and to our peer companies.
(d) Preferred stock warrant was classified as liability and was marked to market in each period until the preferred stock warrant was converted to common stock warrant upon the closing date of IPO. The change in fair value of preferred stock warrant liability was a non-cash item. We believe that the exclusion of this expense provides for a better comparison of our operation results to prior periods and to our peer companies.
(e) On September 30, 2013, the Company recorded a workforce reduction restructuring charges primarily related to employee separation packages, which included severance pay, benefits continuation and outplacement costs. We believe that the exclusion of this expense provides for a better comparison of our operation results to prior periods and to our peer companies.