11.8   Control Statements

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11.8   Control Statements

In this section we shall discuss the Verilog if , case , loop , disable , fork , and join statements that control the flow of code execution.

11.8.1   Case and If Statement

An if statement [Verilog LRM 9.4] represents a two-way branch. In the following example, switch has to be true to execute 'Y = 1' ; otherwise 'Y = 0' is executed:

if(switch) Y = 1; else Y = 0;

The case statement [Verilog LRM 9.5] represents a multiway branch. A controlling expression is matched with case expressions in each of the case items (or arms) to determine a match,

module test_mux; reg a, b, select; wire out;
mux mux_1(a, b, out, select);
initial begin #2; select = 0; a = 0; b = 1;
  #2; select = 1'bx; #2; select = 1'bz; #2; select = 1; end 
initial ("T=%2g",,"  Select=",select,"  Out=",out);
initial #10 ;
module mux(a, b, mux_output, mux_select); input a, b, mux_select;
output mux_output; reg mux_output;
always begin 
  0: mux_output = a;
  1: mux_output = b;
  default mux_output = 1'bx; // If select = x or z set output to x.
#1; // Need some delay, otherwise we'll spin forever.
T= 0  Select=x  Out=x
T= 2  Select=0  Out=x
T= 3  Select=0  Out=0
T= 4  Select=x  Out=0
T= 5  Select=x  Out=x
T= 6  Select=z  Out=x
T= 8  Select=1  Out=x
T= 9  Select=1  Out=1

Notice that the case statement must be inside a sequential block (inside an always statement). Because the case statement is inside an always statement, it needs some delay; otherwise the simulation runs forever without advancing simulation time. The casex statement handles both 'z' and 'x' as don't care (so that they match any bit value), the casez statement handles 'z' bits, and only 'z' bits, as don't care. Bits in case expressions may be set to '?' representing don't care values, as follows:

casex (instruction_register[31:29])
  3b'??1 : add;
  3b'?1? : subtract;
  3b'1?? : branch;

11.8.2   Loop Statement

A loop statement [Verilog LRM 9.6] is a for, while, repeat, or forever statement. Here are four examples, one for each different type of loop statement, each of which performs the same function. The comments with each type of loop statement illustrate how the controls work:

module loop_1;
integer i; reg [31:0] DataBus; initial DataBus = 0;
initial begin 
/************** Insert loop code after here. ******************/
/* for(Execute this assignment once before starting loop; exit loop if this expression is false; execute this assignment at end of loop before the check for end of loop.) */
for(i = 0; i <= 15; i = i+1) DataBus[i] = 1;
/*************** Insert loop code before here. ****************/
initial begin
("DataBus = %b",DataBus);
#2; ("DataBus = %b",DataBus); ;

Here is the while statement code (to replace line 4 in module loop_1 ):

i = 0;
/* while(Execute next statement while this expression is true.) */
while(i <= 15) begin DataBus[i] = 1; i = i+1; end

Here is the repeat statement code (to replace line 4 in module loop_1 ):

i = 0;
/* repeat(Execute next statement the number of times corresponding to the evaluation of this expression at the beginning of the loop.) */
repeat(16) begin DataBus[i] = 1; i = i+1; end 

Here is the forever statement code (to replace line 4 in module loop_1 ):

i = 0;
/* A forever statement loops continuously. */
forever begin : my_loop
  DataBus[i] = 1;
  if (i == 15) #1 disable my_loop; // Need to let time advance to exit.
  i = i+1; 

The output for all four forms of looping statement is the same:

DataBus = 00000000000000000000000000000000
DataBus = 00000000000000001111111111111111

11.8.3   Disable

The disable statement [Verilog LRM 11] stops the execution of a labeled sequential block and skips to the end of the block:

begin: microprocessor_block // Labeled sequential block.
  @(posedge clock)
  if (reset) disable microprocessor_block; // Skip to end of block.
  else Execute_code;

Use the disable statement with caution in ASIC design. It is difficult to implement directly in hardware.

11.8.4   Fork and Join

The fork statement and join statement [Verilog LRM 9.8.2] allows the execution of two or more parallel threads in a parallel block:

module fork_1
event eat_breakfast, read_paper;
initial begin
  @eat_breakfast; @read_paper;

This is another Verilog language feature that should be used with care in ASIC design, because it is difficult to implement in hardware.

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