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Posts Tagged ‘fast clocks’

CDC Verification of Fast-to-Slow Clocks – Part 3: Metastability Aware Simulation

Thursday, January 28th, 2016

We continue the short blog series that addresses the issue of doing clock domain crossing analysis where the clocks differ in frequency. In Part 1 and Part 2, we discussed the use of structural and formal checks when there is a fast-to-slow transition in a clock domain crossing. In this blog, we will present the third and final step using a design’s testbench.

The next step in the verification process of fast-to-slow clock domain crossings is to do metastability-aware simulation on the whole design. When running a regular simulation test bench, there is no concept of what could happen to the design if there was metastability present in the data or control paths within the design. One of the key reasons for doing CDC checks is to ensure that metastability does not affect a design. After structural analysis ensures that all crossings do contain synchronizers, and formal analysis ensures that the pulse width and data are stable, a whole-chip metastability-aware simulation is needed to see if the design is still sensitive to metastability. Functional monitors and metastability checkers are shown in Figure 7. No changes are made to the design, and the necessary monitors and checkers are written in an auxiliary Verilog simulation test bench file. This auxiliary file is simply referred to by the original simulation test bench file to invoke the metastability checking. As a prerequisite, this step requires that the design have a detailed simulation test bench. (more…)

CDC Verification of Fast-to-Slow Clocks – Part 2: Formal Checks

Thursday, January 21st, 2016

We continue the short blog series that addresses the issue of doing clock domain crossing analysis where the clocks differ in frequency. In Part 1, we ended the discussion noting that when there is a fast-to-slow transition, there is a possibility that a short duration control pulse may be completely missed by the receive domain and a formal analysis is required to discover if this is a potential problem. We will look at how formal analysis can verify this kind of transition.

A formal check also is required on a slow-to-fast data crossing with feedback. In such a circuit, as shown in Figure 4, an acknowledge signal coming from the receiving fast-clock domain to the transmitting slow-clock domain also requires a formal Pulse Width check. Although the control pulse (request) is going from slow to fast and does not need a formal pulse width check, the acknowledge pulse-width check is necessary because the acknowledge signal (the feedback circuit) is going from a fast to a slow clock and, in order for the acknowledge to be properly captured, the acknowledge pulse (transmitted from the receiving side) must be sufficiently wide to be captured (received on the transmitting side) by the slower clock domain of the transmitting side flops. Failure to check for this condition is the reason behind many a request/acknowledge circuit not working as expected. Note that feedback circuits in a fast-to-slow crossing are operating in a slow-to-fast mode and the acknowledge signal in such a circuit does not need to be pulse-width checked. In short, all fast-to-slow control signal transitions, whether connected in a feed-forward or a feedback manner need to be formally pulse-width checked to ensure integrity of the control aspect of the clock domain crossing. (more…)

CDC Verification of Fast-to-Slow Clocks – Part 1: Structural Checks

Thursday, January 14th, 2016

This is a reprise of  a short blog series that addresses the issue of doing clock domain crossing analysis where the clocks differ in frequency, and the use of three different techniques for a complete analysis.


CDC checking of any asynchronous clock domain crossing requires that the data path and the control path be identified and that the receive clock domain data flow is controlled by a multiplexer with a select line that is fed by a correctly synchronized control line.  Meridian CDC will always identify all the data and associated control paths in a design and will ensure that the control signals passing from a transmit clock domain to an asynchronous receive clock domain are correctly synchronized.  There are three separate techniques that are used within Meridian CDC: structural checking, formal checks and simulation-based injected metastability checks.


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